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Complete 3 page APA formatted essay: The effects of salt solution on frog skin cell.

Next to Stratum corneum layer is the Stratum granulosum, followed by the Stratum spinosum layer. The Stratum germinavium is the innermost layer which lies beside the basal lamina. The cells of the last three layers communicate with each other via gap junctions and are held together by desmosomes, which are structures that join adjacent cells together (Guo et al,

2003). Amphibian skin has heterocellular epithelium i.e. it is made up of two types of cells. The majorities of cells are normal and are known as Principal cells while a minority faction (MR cells) constitutes the cells which are rich in Mitochondria. The MR cells are responsible for a highly specialized mechanism of chloride transport across amphibian skin (Guo et al, 2003). Both the principal and the MR cells possess the ability to actively transport sodium in the presence of ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate) due to the presence of Na+-K+-ATPase on their basolateral surface. Most amphibian species (toads/frogs) obtain water primarily by osmotic absorption across their skin and are able to absorb Na+ and Cl- across their skin from very dilute solutions (Guo et al., 2003). Because of these properties, the amphibian skin has long been used as a model tissue for the study of ion transport and osmotic water movement across epithelia (Jorgensen, 1997).

The hypothesis for this experiment was that the amount of salt dissolved in water would affect osmosis in model frog skin cells. The prediction for this hypothesis is that the more salt that is dissolved in the water, the smaller the amount of water that will move into the cell. This would naturally result in an imbalance of the natural physiological ionic concentration of the amphibians and dehydrate them. The expected response would be an endeavor on the part of the animal to maintain its hydration which usually takes place through the skin and not through drinking as in vertebrate mammalian species,

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