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Complete 6 page APA formatted essay: Culture and Society in Japan.

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They also attend the university for four years or join the community college for two years. Buckley (1998) indicates that of the total number of students, 90percent, and more graduate from high school. However, in higher learning institutions, at least 40 percent graduates, this shows the importance of education in the society of Japan. Those with disabilities are also considered but under separate schools. The country is keen to provide all individuals with equal educational opportunities hence, known to be one of the countries with high literacy rates in the world. According to Shields (2004), the year for most schools in Japan begins in April and has three terms. These terms are separated by spring, winter and summer holidays. However, the summer break is just one month. Students have an option to or not join the kindergarten when beginning. In 2000, the numbers of children in school were estimated to be half the total population of Japan. This was opposed to the requirements of the state. According to Japan’s educational system rules, children who join the kindergarten must be 3 years and above and their parents have to meet the tuition fee required. At the age of 6 to 12 years, children attend elementary school known as Shogakkou. This is the first phase of the compulsory education in Japan (Okimoto and Rohlen, 1998). The curriculum in the Elementary school is divided into moral education, subjects, and special education. The subjects that are studied include languages, arithmetic, and life environmental studies, physical and moral education. In the special activities, students get involved in several club events. In this phase, students have play breaks and go on recess. Those between the age of 12 and 15 attend Chugakkou, which is junior high school. This phase is crucial for all students as it determines the future of an individual student. The performance here determines if one will get admission to a good senior high school or not. Joining a good senior high school increases the chances of an individual to join the best universities and later attain a better career in life. In this phase, students have to extend after school and are required to attend Juku. Juku is a cram school that is meant to help students increase their knowledge grasping power and bright students are pushed to the next phase. Juku also assists students in the preparation of exams meant for high school entry. Entrance exams enable students compete for the best high schools. It is normal for students to be in school for 12 hours. This excludes the homework given and other different activities. This pressure on Japanese students prepares them to compete for high school positions. According to Dore and Sako (1989) the Japanese education System has special arrangements where students can also work full time, while attending senior high school part time. The Japanese education system has the following outstanding features that include. first, schooling occupies childhood and adolescence stages completely, secondly, the development of the compulsory education both pre and post is privatized. Thirdly, under the single-track system, general education is preferred. Fourth, classmates are automatically promoted according to seniority. Fifth, the number of non-Japanese students and adults enrolled in different schools in Japan is low.

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