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Hi, need to submit a 1000 words essay on the topic Natural Resources and Environmental Economics.
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Globally, the issue of climate change has been in many nations’ focus. This is probably because of the threats posed by it. One of the key components of global climatic change has been global warming. This is a study, is going to look at this scenario of climate change by answering several questions. Global warming summits are part of the tackled factors in the paper? Internationally, the predicament of climate change has been viewed from two legal approaches- ‘Soft’ and ‘hard’ legal approach. The ‘soft’ approach perspective of the issue is in terms of facilitation, while the ‘hard’ approach is in terms of domestic criminal laws countries and it’s supported by sanction threats.The ‘soft’ legal approach encourages sovereignty of states and calls for cooperation within the system. This is to avoid establishment of supranational institutions. It therefore, facilitates and at the same time encourages cooperation in the international platform.Contrary, the alternative approach has got several vital propositions. The essence of international law is to place particular liabilities on nations, those who violate are supposed to be sanctioned and the obligations set should be made enforceable via a binding and compulsory disputes resolution. Most proponents to this ‘hard’ legal approach are NGOs whish are environmental- oriented. (Luterbacher &. Sprinz, 2001 p 202, 203)
A more international handler of issues concerning climate change is the United Nations Environmental Programme. The website of UNEP recognises that the climate change phenomenon is a conspicuous predicament of world environment. It thus, addresses the issue as a central one in its day-to-day work. The current UN secretary General, as a matter of fact, said that climate changes are “the defining challenge of our age”. UNEP also puts into account that the climate changes are a threat to sustainable development, peace as well as security in the current world. Recognition of the predicament of climate change is usually reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the organisation of world meteorology which were set up by UNEP. (UNEP, 2009)
The International approach on climate change is very essential. collaboration is called for since it constructs more apt validation and in situ calibration of observations. It aids in getting world -spread measurements, helps in enjoying synergetic effects and eliminations of redundancy as well, in observation assets deployment.
The community of meteorology is a major example in explaining the importance of international collaborations. However, the climate- obliged community has got a lesser collaborative system, compared to the meteorological section. Some of the perceived benefits of this would be coordination in terms of observing arrays, capacity building, product and data sharing and also inter-calibration. (NRC, 2004, p 74)
The UK climate change policy is targeted at reducing the Carbon dioxide emissions by 12.5% while within the EU. The local UK’s reduction is set at 20% by the year 2010 and further more at 60% by 2050.also the UK has a levy on climate change. This policy is set by UK in the pursuit of fulfillment of the commitments set at the Kyoto protocol covering the period from 2008 through 2012.
The UK climate change levy was initiated in 2000 by the government. Particularly, this is a taxation that’s fiscally neutral and was imposed on energy usage by various businesses. Provided the businesses adhered to the reduction targets one missions, there was to be an 80% rebate upon the same levy. On energy, the UK government put a target for 10% of the generation of electricity from sources that are renewable by year 2010. However, this was dependent upon the acceptance to the cost placed on consumers. To this, 20% of the nation’s electricity should be from renewable energy sources by2020. (House of Lords, 2004 p 20)
On the other hand EU’s policy is as explained.